Disorders of eyes and their surroundings

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Cataract

Cataract is a painless disorder. The first symptoms include blurred vision and sensitivity to strong light. Drivers can experience glare from oncoming vehicle headlights while driving at night. When looking with one eye, the colors might appear less saturated than when looking with the other eye. In addition, the image of near objects may be doubled. Gradually, myopia develops on the affected eye, i.e. blurred distant vision.

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Glaucoma

At the beginning, glaucoma develops entirely unnoticed. Only a preventive check-up can detect the incipient disorder or detect the risk factors, such as increased intraocular pressure. It is only then, when the glaucoma develops, that the patient may experience at first unnoticeable failure in the visual field. Later, obvious failure in peripheral vision occurs, along with blurry vision on the edges of the vision field. If the patient comes to the doctor at a late stage of glaucoma, medicine cannot fully restore the eye’s capability.

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Macular degeneration

Among the most frequent symptoms of patients with macular degeneration are blurred grey or black spots in the visual field. Peripheral vision, however, stays sharp in one or both eyes. Such patients typically see deformed straight lines, blurred letters, deformed shapes, or sizes of various objects. Patients might also see colors that seem to be weakened. As a result of the above-mentioned symptoms, reading, driving, watching TV or even distinguishing people’s faces is completely impossible.

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Strabismus

A typical symptom of strabismus is a failure of cooperation between both eyes (in most cases) when one eye looks straight ahead while the other is mostly turned inside or outside, up or down. Another sign might be partial closing of one eye and tilting the head to one side. Sometimes strabismus occurs only in near vision, while looking into the distance the eyes are in the normal position. In some cases, strabismus might occur only in the evening or due to tiredness.

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Damage to the vitreous

It occurs as tiny dark spots, whose clusters, webs or fibers float in front of the eye. They are more distinct when looking at a light background. Their occurrence and intensity are highly variable and are sometimes almost imperceptible. Other times they can significantly annoy or even obstruct vision until they again “drift away.” 

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Defects of eyelids and eye areas

Many changes of the eyelids and the eye surrounding areas are mainly of a cosmetic character and apart from aesthetic problems do not cause any other difficulties to the patient. A symptom of dermatologic changes might be excessive tearing, which is a consequence of an outward turning of the eyelid edge (ectropion). Consequently, it causes a reversion of the lachrymal point from the surface of the eyeball. On the contrary, when the eyelid edge is turned inwards (entropion), the edge with the eyelashes turns against the eyeball and irritates both the conjunctiva and the cornea, causing burning and cutting sensations in the eye.

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Other retina disorders

They include flashes, sparks or flashing light that usually occur on the periphery of the visual field. These light perceptions (as if “seeing sparks”) may also occur as a result of vitreous commotion after striking the eye or after a strong hit to the head. Should they occur without an external cause, they can be the first sign of retina damage.

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Other lens disorders

Picture deformation, peripheral vision distortion, or loss of sharp vision often develops after an injury or surgical procedure.

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